SQL Server XQuery: Functions (sql:variable() & sql:column())

 

Like most query languages, XQuery has several functions that can be used to manipulate and query data.  SQL Server’s implementation supports a limited subset of the XQuery specification, but there’s a lot of power in the functions provided.  I hope to cover some of those functions in more detail at a later date, but for now I’d like to focus on a couple of very specific functions (sql:variable() & sql:column()).  These are proprietary extensions to XQuery, and they (like the xml methods I previously discussed) provide a bridge between the SQL engine and the XQuery engine.

For example, if you wanted to find the value of the third node of a simple XML document in SQL Server, you could do the following:

DECLARE @x XML ='<alpha>a</alpha><alpha>b</alpha><alpha>c</alpha>'
SELECT @x.value('(//alpha)[3]', 'varchar(1)')

The .value() method would return the letter “c” in the form of a varchar to the SQL engine.  However, if you wanted to do this dynamically, and specify which node to return based on a parameter, you would use the sql:variable() function, like so:

DECLARE @x XML ='<alpha>a</alpha><alpha>b</alpha><alpha>c</alpha>'

DECLARE @node INT = 3
SELECT @x.value('(//alpha)[sql:variable("@node")][1]', 'varchar(1)')

The sql:variable() function uses a string literal (a value surrounded by double quotes) to reference a SQL parameter (in this case, @node) and concatenates it to the XQuery string.  The above query is seen as:

(//alpha)[3][1]

by the XQuery engine.  In English, we are looking for the 3rd node named alpha.  You may wonder about the extra positional reference (“[1]”) ; the .value() method requires that a positional reference be explicitly defined.  In this situation, we are telling the XQuery engine to return the first instance of the third node of the alpha node.  Seems a bit clunky, but it works.  Looking at the execution plan, we can see that this is a relatively complex process, with multiple calls between the two sides of the query processor:

image

The sql:column() function is similar, but is used to refer to a column instead of a parameter; this allows for the dynamic querying of an XML column on a row by row basis.  For example:

DECLARE @T TABLE ( ID INT, x XML )

INSERT  INTO @T
        ( ID, x )
VALUES  ( 1, '<alpha>a</alpha><alpha>b</alpha><alpha>c</alpha>' ),
        ( 2, '<alpha>a</alpha><alpha>b</alpha><alpha>c</alpha>' ),
        ( 3, '<alpha>a</alpha><alpha>b</alpha><alpha>c</alpha>' )

SELECT  ID, v=x.value('(//alpha)[sql:column("ID")][1]', 'varchar(1)')
FROM    @T

The above query will return a dataset like so:

image

Summary

SQL Server provides two functions for sharing information from the SQL engine to the XQuery engine: sql:variable() & sql:column().  The nature of these functions is pretty straight-forward; you pass the value of either a parameter or a column to an XML method, and it builds an XQuery string using the values of these functions. 

October 4, 2013 · stuart · No Comments
Tags: , ,  · Posted in: SQL, SQL Server, SQLServerPedia Syndication, XML

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